Home Print this page Email this page Users Online: 49
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 56-58

Mango and diabetes


1 Department of Gynecology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India
2 Department of Dietetics, Maharaja Agrasen Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Endocrinology, Maharaja Agrasen Hospital, New Delhi, India
4 Department of Culinary Science, The Roseate, Gurgaon, Haryana, India

Date of Submission10-Aug-2017
Date of Acceptance10-Aug-2017
Date of Web Publication28-Jun-2018

Correspondence Address:
Bharti Kalra
Department of Gynecology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, Haryana
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JSHD.JSHD_26_17

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

The mango is considered as the king of fruits. It is one of the most consumed seasonal fruits in South Asia. Most persons with diabetes and health-care providers assume that mango should be strictly avoided by persons with diabetes. However, mango is a fruit with good nutritive value, low glycemic load as well as with acceptable glycemic index. In this short review, we summarize the nutritive values of mango, as well as the ways in which mangoes can be enjoyed, in moderation, by persons with diabetes.

Keywords: Diabetes, fruits, glycemic index, mango


How to cite this article:
Kalra B, Gupta L, Khandelwal D, Choubey N. Mango and diabetes. J Soc Health Diabetes 2018;6:56-8

How to cite this URL:
Kalra B, Gupta L, Khandelwal D, Choubey N. Mango and diabetes. J Soc Health Diabetes [serial online] 2018 [cited 2018 Dec 18];6:56-8. Available from: http://www.joshd.net/text.asp?2018/6/1/56/235451




  Introduction Top


The mango is considered as the king of fruits by all. For people with diabetes, however, it is thought to be the Menaka of fruits. Irresistible because of its taste, it is thought to lure its consumers to metabolic doom. In this way, it is similar to the fairy (apsara) Menaka, who seduced the venerable sage, Vishvamitra, and interrupted his meditation. Our brief communication aims to correct this misconception.


  Source Top


The mango is a fruit of the Mangifera tree. It can be eaten raw or ripe. Mango is the national tree of Bangladesh, as well as the national fruit of India, Pakistan, and the Philippines. Apart from these countries, it is majorly produced in China, Thailand, Indonesia, and Mexico as well.


  Nutritional Value Top


The mango has been the subject of much research in clinical nutrition. The mango provides all the significant Vitamins A, B, C, and K along with calcium, iron, copper, and potassium, respectively [Table 1]. There is no cholesterol in mango.[1]
Table 1: Nutritional value of mango (/100 g)[11]

Click here to view


The glycemic load of mango is 51, which is classified as low. Its glycemic index has been found to be similar to that of other tropical and subtropical fruits.[2]

Mangiferin, a bioactive substance found in mango seeds (0.42 mg/kg), peel (1690.4 mg/kg), and pulp (4.4 mg/kg), is thought to have hypoglycemic properties. Mangiferin is a xanthone with high antioxidative activity. It inhibits sucrase, isomaltase, and maltase, and thus decreases in glucose intestinal absorption. Mango also contains dietary fiber, which can reduce digestion of carbohydrate and lower glucose absorption.[3]


  Evidence Top


Human studies suggest that mango consumption may improve postprandial glucose and markers of atherosclerosis. Mango consumption for 42 days has been shown to decrease systolic blood pressure in lean subjects, but not in obese persons. Hemoglobin A1C improves significantly in obese but not lean subjects. Reduced expression of PAI -1, associated with reduced risk of atherosclerosis and thrombosis, is observed in both lean and obese individual.[4]

Pre-packaged ground freeze-dried ripe “Tommy Atkins” mango fruit powder has been shown to improve glucose values and increase insulin levels in obese diabetics.[5] A similar trend is noted in prediabetic individuals.[6]


  Usage Top


Logical empiricism suggests that mango should not be banned from the diabetic menu. One should follow a person-centered counseling approach to mango consumption in persons with diabetes. Depending on the glycemic control, people may consume small portions of the fruit approx. 100–150 g of edible portion/day or 50 g mango slice thrice a day which is friendlier to glucose metabolism than a larger portion of it consumed with the heaviest meal.

The glycemic index may be further lowered by taking mango after consumption of high fiber food such as salads or beans or whole grains. Dicing the fruit into small cubes or thin slices increases its surface area, thus improving palatability and taste while keeping the total consumption within limits. Processing of mango puree by high hydrostatic pressure also reduces its glycemic index.[7]

Mangoes are weighed and bought by the kilogram. This makes it easy to explain the concept of serving size, and glycemic load calculation, to the average consumer. One must note that the peel and seed contribute to about 20%–25% of the total weight of the fruit. Mango peel, leaves, and mango kernel flour have been used to modulate glycemia in animal models, but are not part of South Asian diet.[8],[9],[10]


  Recipes Top


Mango is a versatile fruit which is a gift to the chef. It adds taste, color, flavor, and variety to recipes and can be used in raw as well as cooked form. It can be grilled, boiled, steamed, roasted, baked, as well as stewed. Beverages such as aam panna or mango kanji can also be prepared from mango pulp. Tasty and healthy recipes which allow people with diabetes to taste its flavor include mango and cucumber salads, baked mango tart with mushroom, mango and dried nuts, mango salsa, and steamed mango idli. Boiled mango can be used to make sauces with a garnishing of chia seed, flax seed, and aniseed. Raw mango slices can be dusted with a starch and can be turned into a fritter, a great snack. Mango can be added as a natural sweetening agent to desserts, obviating the need for sugar.[11]


  Summary Top


Mangoes may be eaten in moderation by persons with diabetes. While they are purported to have multiple benefits on metabolism, one must be mindful of total caloric intake, portion size, frequency and glycemic load, while consuming this fruit.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Mango. Available from: https://www.ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/nutrients/. [Last accessed on 2017 Jul 23].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Oboh G, Ademosun AO, Akinleye M, Omojokun OS, Boligon AA, Athayde ML. Starch composition, glycemic indices, phenolic constituents, and antioxidative and antidiabetic properties of some common tropical fruits. J Ethnic Foods 2015;2:64-73.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Masibo M, Qian H. Major mango polyphenols and their potential significance to human health. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2008;7:309-19.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Fang C, Kim H, Barnes R, Talcott ST, Mertens-Talcott SU. Daily mango (Mangifera indica L.) Consumption for 42 days differentially modulates metabolism and inflammation in lean and obese individuals. FASEB J 2017;31 1 Suppl: 431-3.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Evans SF, Meister M, Mahmood M, Eldoumi H, Peterson S, Perkins-Veazie P, et al. Mango supplementation improves blood glucose in obese individuals. Nutr Metab Insights 2014;7:77-84.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.
Semkoff J, Evans S, Janthachotikun S, Eldoumi H, Mahmood M, Meister M, et al. The effect of mango supplementation on clinical parameters of pre-diabetic individuals. FASEB J 2015;29 1 Suppl:602-12.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Elizondo-Montemayor L, Hernández-Brenes C, Ramos-Parra PA, Moreno-Sánchez D, Nieblas B, Rosas-Pérez AM, et al. High hydrostatic pressure processing reduces the glycemic index of fresh mango puree in healthy subjects. Food Funct 2015;6:1352-60.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Gondi M, Prasada Rao UJ. Ethanol extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel inhibits α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, and ameliorates diabetes related biochemical parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. J Food Sci Technol 2015;52:7883-93.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]    
9.
Lakshmi M, Usha R, Preetha R. Mango (Mangifera indica) stone kernel flour – A novel food ingredient. Malays J Nutr 2016;22:461-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Patnaik R. Mango leaves in treating diabetes: A strategic study. Int J Innov Res Dev 2014;3(12):432-441.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Available from: http://www.icmr.nic.in/pricepubl/content/1.htm. [Last accessed on 2017 Aug 09].  Back to cited text no. 11
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Source
Nutritional Value
Evidence
Usage
Recipes
Summary
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed473    
    Printed3    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded90    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]